Dr. Stern on the NHL: How does hockey contribute to CTE?

Excerpt: “When it comes to hockey, we really don't yet know whether it's the game itself, and the hits players take by playing the sport, and/or the hits to the head from fighting. So in the cases that we have examined, Reg Fleming and Bob Probert, they played in different eras of play. No helmet versus helmet. Size of players is different now versus before. Rules of the game have changed. But one thing they had in common was they were both enforcers, with Reg Fleming being one of the original enforcers and Bob Probert having the reputation of being one of the major enforcers of the game. That involves in Probert's case 200 to 300 fights in his professional career that likely involved a lot of trauma to the brain. But we have no idea just based on these two cases whether it's the fighting or the blows to the head from playing the game or a combination of the two. Much more research is needed.”